All posts by Daniel Lee

Museum will offer free admission to military personnel and their families this summer

ST. AUGUSTINE LIGHTHOUSE & MARITIME MUSEUM TO PARTICIPATE IN BLUE STAR MUSEUMS

ST. AUGUSTINE, FL  – The St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum announces it will join museums nationwide in participating in the tenth summer of Blue Star Museums, a program which provides free admission to our nation’s active-duty military personnel and their families this summer. The 2019 program will begin earlier than in past years, launching on Saturday, May 18, 2019, Armed Forces Day, and ending on Monday, September 2, 2019, Labor Day. Military can find the list of participating museums at arts.gov/bluestarmuseums.

Blue Star Museums is an initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts in collaboration with Blue Star Families, the Department of Defense, and more than 2,000 museums nationwide. First Lady of the United States Melania Trump and Second Lady of the United States Karen Pence are honorary co-chairs of Blue Star Museums 2019.

Self-guided tours of the St. Augustine Light Station include six historic structures –  the 1874 lighthouse tower, the 1876 keepers’ house, two 1888 summer kitchens, a 1936 garage, and a 1941 United States Coast Guard coastal lookout building.  

The St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum will hold a special event on June 6 for the 75th Anniversary of D-Day which will include special programs in the WWII US Coast Guard exhibit building.   

“The history and mission of the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum have a natural appeal for military members and their families, and it is an honor to host them this summer as part of the Blue Star Museums program,” said Capt. Bob Buehn, USN (Ret.), the Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the nonprofit Museum.

“We preserve centuries of military history here in St. Augustine and the lighthouse still serves as a functioning aid to navigation, areas of interest for those in uniform.  The chance for them to visit here with their families at no cost is wonderful.”

The St. Augustine Lighthouse

“The National Endowment for the Arts is proud to celebrate the tenth summer of collaborating with Blue Star Families, Department of Defense, and especially the more than 2,000 museums across our nation that make this program possible,” said Mary Anne Carter, acting chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts.

“Organizations such as the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum are providing wonderful opportunities for military families to share a memorable experience together this summer.”

This year’s participating organizations include fine art, science, history, and children’s museums, as well as zoos, aquariums, gardens, and more. Museums are welcome to sign up for Blue Star Museums throughout the summer at arts.gov.

“We’ve seen the tremendous impact the Blue Star Museums program brings to our military families, and we’re thrilled to be celebrating a decade of support,” said Kathy Roth-Douquet, chief executive officer of Blue Star Families. “Not only are museums fun to explore but are also great for making memories and strengthening military families as a whole.”

“The Defense Department congratulates Blue Star Families and the National Endowment for the Arts on reaching an incredible milestone: Ten years of service to the military community though Blue Star Museums,” said A.T. Johnston, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Community and Family Policy. “We offer our sincere gratitude to the more than 2,000 museums across the country who open their doors through this wonderful program. Your patriotism and generosity have enriched the lives and experiences of our military families.”

1941 US Coast Guard Coastal Lookout Quarters on the grounds of the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum.

The free admission program is available for those currently serving in the United States Military — Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard as well as members of the Reserves, National Guard, U.S. Public Health Commissioned Corps, NOAA Commissioned Corps, and up to five family members. Qualified members must show a Geneva Convention common access card (CAC), DD Form 1173 ID card (dependent ID), or a DD Form 1173-1 ID card for entrance into a participating Blue Star Museum.

Follow Blue Star Museums on Twitter @NEAarts and @BlueStarFamily, #bluestarmuseums.

About St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum

A defensive and navigation tool and landmark of St. Augustine for 145 years, the St. Augustine Light Station watches over the waters of the Nation’s Oldest Port®. Through interactive exhibits, guided tours and maritime research, the 501(c)(3) nonprofit St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum, Inc. is on a mission to discover, preserve, present and keep alive the stories of the Nation’s Oldest Port® as symbolized by our working lighthouse. We are the parent organization to the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP) and an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. (StAugustineLighthouse.org)

About the National Endowment for the Arts

Established by Congress in 1965, the National Endowment for the Arts is the independent federal agency whose funding and support gives Americans the opportunity to participate in the arts, exercise their imaginations, and develop their creative capacities. Through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector, the Arts Endowment supports arts learning, affirms and celebrates America’s rich and diverse cultural heritage, and extends its work to promote equal access to the arts in every community across America. Visit arts.gov to learn more.

About Blue Star Families
Blue Star Families builds communities that support military families by connecting research and data to programs and solutions, including career development tools, local community events for families, and caregiver support. Since its inception in 2009, Blue Star Families has engaged tens of thousands of volunteers and serves more than 1.5 million military family members. With Blue Star Families, military families can find answers to their challenges anywhere they are. For more information, visit bluestarfam.org

Frequently Asked Questions by Lighthouse Visitors

Before You Visit

Q. Can I climb the lighthouse?

A. Yes, weather permitting, you can walk out on the observation deck and look into the lens room. For their safety, children must be at least 44 inches tall to climb.

Q. Are there any restrictions to climbing?

A. You must be at least 44 inches tall to go up to the top of the lighthouse. Children who are not tall enough to climb get in free, and one adult with them gets in half off. Carrying children in the tower is prohibited, and all climbers must do so on their own power.

Q. How tall is the lighthouse?

A. The top of the lighthouse is 165 feet above sea level.

Q. How many steps are there?

A. There are 219 steps to reach the observation deck. There are also eight landings, one with a bench, where visitors can rest and let other people pass.

Q. What is there to do besides climb the lighthouse?

A. We have a children’s play area and puppet theater for those too short to climb, and there are exhibits in four historic structures and the new Maritime Center, many of which are hands on and interactive. We also have a boatbuilding program and schedule of Daily Demos that cover boatbuilding, historic sailing and navigation, underwater archaeology and lighthouse history.

Q. Can you see through the stairs?

A. Yes. However, there are railings conveniently located on both sides.

Q. Does the lighthouse have an elevator?

A. No, the lighthouse is an historic structure, completed in 1874.

Q. Is the site handicap accessible?

A. Yes. An alternative short entrance path is available from the handicapped parking to the grounds. Staff will open the gate upon request. A ramp provides access to the ground floor of the Keepers’ House, containing exhibits. Other exhibits, including the PGA Artifact Conservation Lab Viewing Hallway, in the Maritime Education Center are also wheelchair accessible, and there is a video, “A View from the Top” so those unable to climb can see the view. However, the light station is an historic site and certain areas are accessible only by stairs. Upon request staff will open the emergency exit door to access the basement, a six-step stairway alternative to the spiral staircase inside the dwelling. Stairs lead up to the second floor of the keepers’ house. The office and storage room at the base of the tower are accessed by five steps equipped with handrails. The base of the lighthouse is reached by an additional twelve granite steps with handrails. A large print self-guided walking tour is available at the welcome counter in the Visitors’ Center.

Q. Can I climb in the rain?

A. Yes, unless there is thunder or lightning, you are able to climb the tower in the rain. The observation deck will be closed if it gets too wet or if rain is coming in the access door. There is no climbing when thunder and lightning are observed in the area.

Q. Does it ever get too windy to go to the top?

A. When wind speeds at the top of the tower exceed 30 mph, children are restricted from going out on the observation deck. When wind speeds reach 40 mph or greater, access to the observation deck is off limits to all climbers.

Fun Facts and Information

Q. When was the lighthouse built?

A. The St. Augustine Lighthouse was built between 1871 and 1874. It took three years to build due to lack of manpower and funds. It was first lit October 15, 1874.

The first St. Augustine Lighthouse, called the Old Spanish Watchtower, fell into the ocean in 1880.

Q. Why is the lighthouse so far from the coast?

A. The first St. Augustine Lighthouse was approximately 500 yards northeast of the current Lighthouse and fell into the ocean in 1880. The current location was selected due to its relatively high elevation atop of an old beach dune.

Q. Does the St. Augustine Lighthouse still come on at night?

A. Yes, it is a privately-owned active aid to navigation. The nonprofit St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum owns and maintains the lighthouse and other historic structures on the grounds.

Q. What were the rooms at the base of the tower used for?

A. The north room, on the right when you are looking at the tower, was used to store the lard oil that fueled the light in the late 19th century. To the left, or south of, the entrance was the lighthouse keepers’ office, where they maintained detailed records of equipment, repairs, maintenance and watch logs.

Q. Is that the original Keepers’ House?

A. Yes, it is the original Keepers’ House. After being gutted by fire in the 1970s, the Junior Service League of St. Augustine restore the structure and opened a museum. The house and lighthouse tower are on the National Register of Historic Places.

Q. Why is the Keepers’ House so big?

A. St. Augustine had up to three lighthouse keepers and their families that lived in the home. It was arranged as a duplex, with the Head Keepers’ family on the north side, the 1st Assistant Keeper on the south side, and a single room for the 2nd Assistant Keeper, who was usually unmarried. So while it is a big home, it housed up to 15 people at any given time!

Q. What are the other historic buildings?

A. The Tin Pickle, Local Gedunk WWII-themed eatery, is located in a building first constructed as a garage for the keepers in 1936. As part of the coastal response to WWII, it was converted into a garage to maintain jeeps that worked on the U.S. Navy Beach Patrol that looked for German U-boats and other threatening activity off the coast. The other small white building directly north of the keepers’ house was built in 1941-42 to house additional U.S. Coast Guardsmen that ensured a 24-hour lookout from the top of the lighthouse.

Q. What is Maritime Archaeology?

A. Learn more about this here.

St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum welcomes Cultural Heritage team from Spain

From left: John Regan, St. Augustine City Manager; Manuel de la Cruz, Edriel Intelligence; Carlos Leon Amores, General Subdirectorate of Historical Heritage of the Ministry of Culture for the Nation of Spain; Kathy Fleming, Executive Director of St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum; Francisco Sanchez-Guitard, Edriel Intelligence and member of a Spanish boat building family; Leanna Freeman, Vice Mayor City of St. Augustine; John Valdes, City Commissioner, City of St. Augustine; Irving Kass, Owner of Saint George Inn and Board of Trustees Treasurer at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum; and Chuck Meide, Director of Archaeology at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum.

St. Augustine, FL –The St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum welcomed a Cultural Heritage team from Spain on Thursday, April 25 at the nonprofit Museum.

Honored guests from Spain included Carlos Leon Amores, Independent consultant for the ministery General Subdirectorate of Historical Heritage of the Ministry of Culture for the Nation of Spain; Manuel de la Cruz from Malaga, Spain and Francisco Sanchez-Guitard of Edriel Intelligence. Sanchez-Guitard is also a member of a Spanish boatbuilding family.

The City of St. Augustine officials were present at the event, with Vice Mayor Leanna Freeman presenting gold coins with the City seal to the Spanish team. Commissioner John Valdes attended as well as City Manager, John Regan. Irving Kass of the St. George Inn kicked off the entire event as the Museum’s Board Treasurer presenting a copy of the PBS video of the story of St. Augustine from the University of Florida Historic St. Augustine.

A gold coin with the City of St. Augustine seal was presented to visiting Spanish guests.

Sanchez-Guitard has a vision shared by the Museum – to make the St. Augustine area a maritime hub of learning, connecting the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum to the  Fountain of Youth, the settlement site of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, and scholars worldwide. This work is echoed by historian Dr. Michael Francis in his La Florida project, revealing Florida history through a digital archive of Spanish heritage in the Americas. Francis and his students are chronicling the lives and culture of those that traveled with Menendez. Please see www.laflorida.org for more information.

Carlos Leon Amores has released the first inventory of Spanish shipwrecks in America (between 1492 and 1898) with more than 600 Spanish shipwrecks on the list. The catalog of Spanish Cultural Heritage is part of the National Plan for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage developed by Spain, under the principles of the UNESCO convention and funded in part through a partnership with NOAA. Amores’ list does not yet include shipwrecks in the First Coast region. The St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum’s research arm, the St. Augustine Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program, seeks to become the first archaeological nonprofit to help with this important work and to add the nation’s oldest port to this international database.

“Our Museum’s shared objective with scholars from all over the world is not so much to raise these ships from the ocean floor, but to preserve the information that they hold and to protect them from looting and pillaging, said Kathy Fleming, Executive Director of the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum.

“Instead we seek to tell their hidden stories, and reveal our worldwide connections to each other.”

For more details about the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum, visit staugustinelighthouse.org or call 904-829-0745. Stay updated on social media at facebook.com/staugustinelighthouse, Instagram.com/stauglighthouse, and twitter.com/firstlighthouse


NEW Keeper Tours & Demos at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum!

Guests to the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum can now learn even more about the maritime history of our area. New Nation’s Oldest Port® Demos reveal stories about daily life of a St. Augustine Lighthouse Keeper, how sailors navigated the seas before GPS, and how our Lighthouse Archaeologists discover artifacts underwater on shipwrecks – along with other maritime topics during these interactive and fun experiences.

St. Augustine Lighthouse Keeper Jason Smith stands on the front lawn of the Keepers’ House in front of the historic St. Augustine Lighthouse tower. New Keeper Tours offers a walk with Jason or Keeper Rick Cain for a one-hour behind the scenes experience.

“Guests can now customize their visit to the Museum through a wide variety of location, theme and time options, making their experience more meaningful to them,” said Brenda Swann, Director of the Interpretive Division at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum.

“These fun demos create memories and a connection to the historic site and the region’s maritime heritage that will last a lifetime. We love this new opportunity to engage with our visitors!”

During the new Nation’s Oldest Port Demos at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum, guests can learn how sailors navigated the high seas and inland waters before GPS, radar and accurate maps during a demo called Dead Reckoning.

Visitors also can take a walk with one of our Lighthouse Keepers (Rick Cain and Jason Smith) and learn about Lighthouse history on a behind the scenes tour. New Keepers’ Tours are held at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Tuesdays and Thursdays; and at 10 a.m. Wednesdays. The one-hour tours are $19.95 for adults, $17.95 for seniors and children under 12. Reservations can be made by calling 904-829-0745 or ask in the gift shop.

Nation’s Oldest Port® Demos are included with the cost of admission to the nonprofit Museum. The educational and interactive programs run each half hour from 11 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on the grounds. See the list of demos below.

Find out if you could handle being the keeper of the St. Augustine Lighthouse in the late 1800s on the Bucket Challenge, a Nation’s Oldest Port Demo that demonstrates and discusses daily life of the St. Augustine Lighthouse keepers.

Regular admission fees to the Museum are $12.95 for adults; $10.95 for seniors and children under 12; and free for children less than 44 inches (unable to climb the tower). St. Johns County residents with ID can pay for one day and receive a pass for a complete calendar year. Membership packages also are available. Hours are 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily through Memorial Day, then 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. seven days a week during summer.

For more details about the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Maritime Museum, visit staugustinelighthouse.org or call 904-829-0745. Stay updated on social media at facebook.com/staugustinelighthouse, Instagram.com/stauglighthouse, and twitter.com/firstlighthouse

New Nation’s Oldest Port® Programs

  • Dead Reckoning: Learn how sailors navigated the high seas and inland waters before GPS, radar and accurate maps.
  • Tools of the Trade: Discover how early boatwrights bent and shaped wooden beams and made waterproof craft.
  • Sailor Lingo and Superstitions: Hear common and not-so-common phrases and words that were a matter of life and death aboard ship.
  • Bucket Challenge: Find out if you could handle being the keeper of the St. Augustine Lighthouse in the late 1800s at this fun program that demonstrates and discusses daily life of the keepers.
  • Improv at the St. Augustine Lighthouse: Help your docent decide what stories to tell from Lighthouse past and be surprised by what you hear!
  • Lighting the Way: See how lighthouses throw light 19-25 miles out to sea and learn the importance of lighthouses to early shipping and navigation.
  • Finding Shipwrecks and Why They Matter: Learn how archaeologists search for and find shipwrecks buried under the ocean floor and discover why these nonrenewable resources are important.
  • Stories from Beneath the Waves: Working underwater in low visibility offshore of St. Augustine, archaeologists often document shipwrecks using only their sense of touch. Try your hand at this and “see” how knowing the artifacts and their location on the shipwreck reveal stories not otherwise known.
  • That’s an Artifact? Uncover more stories in the lab and find out how artifacts unlock the secrets of shipwrecks and the people onboard.

For additional information, visit www.staugustinelighthouse.org

Lighthouse Keeper Series: Francis Philip Fatio Dunham

By Jay Smith

            On June 26, 1916, readers of the St. Augustine Evening Record read an entertaining interview with 68 year old Oregon Dunham offering “very interesting reminiscences” from a man “whose remarkable memory…retained so much of what happened in the earlier days.” Dunham recalled significant events in the Oldest City, including the Civil War and some of the local folklore.  “Oregon” was a nickname for Francis Philip Fatio Dunham.  His mother, Mary, was the daughter of his namesake, Francis Philip Fatio, who arrived in Florida during the American Revolution.  His father, David Ross Dunham, born in New York City, came to Florida to oversee his family’s sugar plantation in New Smyrna.  The Dunhams proved to be one of several prominent families in Florida’s history.  Interestingly, of all the Lighthouse Keepers, Oregon Dunham held the shortest tenure at the station.  On April 1, 1875, William Russell and his family moved out of the tower and delivered the keys to then-Assistant Keeper Dunham.  On April 15, Dunham accepted the official appointment as Keeper of the St. Augustine Lighthouse.  By November 18, a new Keeper, William Harn, arrived. 

Lighthouse Keeper “Oregon” Francis Philip Fatio Dunham and family/friends are shown on the base of the first lighthouse, which had fallen in the ocean, with the new St. Augustine Lighthouse in the backgound.

            Oregon Dunham certainly had the pedigree to position himself into a government job such as the Keeper at St. Augustine.  As William Russell discovered, government jobs in St. Augustine often depended less on skill and training than upon connections with the rich and powerful.  Dunham’s family connections certainly placed him at the top of the applicant pool.  He began working at the light station on October 15, 1874, as the First Assistant Keeper under Keeper Russell.  Once he received the appointment as Head Keeper, the Second Assistant Keeper, Philip J. Canova, received a promotion to First Assistant. Canova stayed only a few months and then resigned.  In order to fill the vacancy, Second Assistant Daniel Mickler was promoted to First Assistant.  Such a personnel change may suggest contentious issues at the station; however, we have no record of what prompted Dunham’s dismissal.  Nevertheless, the Keeper’s Log provides some hints to the cause. 

            Within a few months of Dunham’s appointment as Head Keeper, an accident took place.  The tower was literally less than a year old when on June 21, 1875, “a little after two o’clock the weight of the mechanical lamp fell through the receiving well carrying the bottom off of the flange and fell into revolving machinery thereby springing some of the shafts so badly as to prevent the ‘revolving’ of the lens.” Although the extent of the damage is not known, the result was that the light ran only as a fixed light, meaning that the lens did not rotate.  Thus, the light station could not display its night mark.  The log records that the light was back in operation by June 26, 1875, following a visit by the United States Lampist who “placed [the light] in perfect order.” The log also records that the Captain Inspector, AEK Benham, made two more visits to the light station, once on July 28 and another on August 29.  Each visit apparently entailed repairs to the site.  On the July 28 visit, the Captain Inspector, in his own hand, wrote in the log, “Written the Principal + assistants are to absent themselves from the station until all work is finished and the light + appurtenances are ready for inspection.”  In the Light Station Service, multiple visits from the Lampist hinted at a problem perhaps with the light itself; however,  multiples visits by the Inspector General within a few months’ time, meant that something was fundamentally wrong with the way the station was run. 

Since the tower was relatively new, the Light House Service was bound to be concerned about the job Keeper Dunham was doing.  In fact, on November 18, 1875, a new Keeper named William Harn arrived to take command of the Light Station.  Although there is no mention in the Keeper’s Log of the removal of Oregon Dunham, we do know that it took place prior to Harn’s arrival.  The Keeper’s Log does not record any major incidents for well over a year after Harn’s arrival and appointment. 

            What happened to Oregon Dunham? As in the case of William Russell, Dunham remains an elusive figure in historical records.  He remained in St. Augustine, and most of the city directories mention him as a gardener.  He resided in the home of his mother, Mary Dunham, located on Charlotte Street behind the St. Francis Barracks.  She owned two pieces of property: one on Charlotte Street and the other just behind it on south St. George Street facing Maria Sanchez Creek.  With the death of his mother, Oregon inherited these two pieces of property.  The city directory lists a boarder with a “b” by Oregon’s name until 1890 when he became an owner, marked with an “o.”

            Unfortunately there are no additional records mentioning Oregon until December 7, 1911, when he sold the property which he had inherited from his mother.  He sold it to his brother, David L. Dunham, for the sum of ten dollars.  The warranty deed records only the monetary transaction, not why Oregon sold the land.  The next mention of Oregon appears in the article in the St. Augustine Evening Record of June 26, 1916.  In September of 1916, Oregon Dunham applied for residence in the Florida Confederate Home in Jacksonville.  Created by the Florida Soldiers Home Association in 1888, the facility was a retirement home for Confederate veterans.  The Association had purchased ten acres of land along Talleyrand Avenue for the construction of an Italian-styled building with nine rooms.  An adjoining home contained two additional rooms.  Residents had to furnish proof of their Confederate military service as well as their honorable discharge or parole. 

            On August 10, 1861, Oregon Dunham, only 14 years old, had enlisted in Company B of the Third Florida Infantry, otherwise known as the St. Augustine Blues.   His older brother, David Lewis Dunham, enlisted in Jacksonville with Company H of the Second Florida Infantry.  Oregon served for only a short time before his parents pulled him out of service because of his youth and a physical disability.  He hired someone of the same age to serve in his place and to answer to “Oregon Dunham.”  However, the substitute was discharged on November 2, 1862, in Knoxville, Tennessee.  Dunham remained in St. Augustine throughout the war.  Refusing to take the oath of loyalty to the Union, he found himself in custody.  When the other Confederate supporters in St. Augustine were deported to Confederate lines, the Union commander ordered that Dunham remain in St. Augustine and daily report to the Union Provost Marshall.  Dunham detailed his war experiences in his application for a Confederate pension in 1909.  Unfortunately, when Dunham filed the paperwork, he used his given name, Francis Philip Fatio Dunham, not Oregon Dunham.  The State Board of Pensions denied the request since there were no records filed under his given name.  A second application included both names, but met with the same fate since Oregon had used a substitute.  Using their connections in state government, the Dunham family requested that Oregon be awarded his pension.  Therefore, on June 13, 1913, the Legislature of the State of Florida passed State Bill Number 127 requiring the State Board of Pensions to “accept proofs submitted by the said Oregon Dunham as proofs of service and place his name on the roll of pensioners to whom has been allowed a pension.”

            The disability mentioned by Oregon Dunham in his application for a Confederate pension is known as varicocele, the enlargement of the veins in the scrotum (very similar to varicose veins which occur in the legs).  The condition can cause a great deal of pain and usually leads to infertility.  Even with today’s medical knowledge, the exact cause of the condition is unknown, and there are no known risk factors that contribute to the diagnosis.  The common treatment for the condition was surgery; however, it is doubtful that Dunham would have opted for such an invasive procedure.  One of the major causes of death during the Civil War was not wounds inflicted upon soldiers but the conditions in field hospitals and operating rooms where infections ran unabated.    

            Although Oregon Dunham supervised the St. Augustine Light Station for only a short time, his tenure there was historically important.  Despite the unfortunate incidents that seem to have cut short his career in the Light Service, Dunham’s service demonstrates that family connections and prominence in the community provided him an opportunity to serve.  We must remember that following the Civil War, appointments for most government offices were rarely based around experience.  The civil service exam would not determine eligibility for government service until the Pendleton Act of 1883, and even then the number of government positions within the government that required the exam was minimal. Following his time as Keeper, Dunham remained in St. Augustine and was employed as a gardener.  More than likely, his disability kept him from pursuing farming or any other physically demanding occupation.  He died in 1916 and was buried in St. Augustine’s Evergreen Cemetery with other members of his family.  When William Harn arrived in St. Augustine, the Light Service sought a Keeper who could avoid the errors of the former Keeper while bringing stability to the station.